• Adapt the exam to clinical setting and patient condition (patient position, physical environment, medications, etc.) 
• Adjust study to minimize artifacts 
• Aortoiliac congenital anomalies 
• Aortoiliac disease (atherosclerosis, aneurysm, dissection, etc.) 
• Aortoiliac scan technique in obtaining and documenting diagnostic images 
• Aortoiliac vasculature 
• Apply appropriate use criteria 
• Apply physical principles 
• Appropriate indications and contraindications for vascular exams 
• Appropriate preparations for the test 
• Appropriate procedural imaging: pre-procedure, during procedure, and post-procedure 
• Artifacts, their causes, and their implications on the study 
• Assess abnormal vasculature 
• Assess organs related to abnormal vasculature (liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, gallbladder, thyroid, etc.) 
• Assess the appropriateness of the exam (per indications, by applying Appropriate Use Criteria, etc.) 
• Calculate, perform, and analyze resistive indices and acceleration times 
• Collaborate regarding exam protocols (including discussions, optional images, modifications, timing, and diagnostic criteria) 
• Common causes of failure/rejection of surgically altered anatomy/vasculature 
• Communicate professionally with patient and provider 
• Compare exam findings to correlative studies 
• Contraindications to a procedure 
• Contraindications to a vascular exam 
• Correlate information from various types of imaging studies 
• Correlate vascular exam findings with other imaging modalities 
• Critical findings (aneurysm, acute deep vein thrombosis, critical stenosis, etc.) 

• Dialysis access 
• Document and communicate findings 
• Document preliminary impression/findings and technical limitations 
• Document preliminary impression/findings and technical limitations, and verify images are appropriately archived for interpretation 
• Effects of tourniquet on hemodynamics 
• Establish rapport and interview patient 
• Evaluate effects of limb size and cuff diameter 
• Evaluate effects of tourniquet on hemodynamics 
• Evaluate pathology, perfusion, and function 
• Evaluate post-procedural vasculature (after evar, ivc filter, venous ablation, bypass grafts, tips, stents, etc.) 
• Evaluate surgically altered anatomy and pathology 
• Exam protocols 
• Expected post-procedural findings/potential complications 
• Extracranial cerebrovascular disease 
• Extracranial cerebrovascular system 
• Hemodynamics as it related to surgically altered anatomy and pathology 
• Hemodynamics as it relates to normal anatomy 
• Hemodynamics as it relates to pathology 
• Hepatoportal system 
• Hepatoportal system disease (thrombosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, portal hypertension, etc.) 
• Identify anatomic variants 
• Identify and communicate critical findings 
• Identify and document incidental findings 
• Identify artifacts related to vascular imaging, and document and/or modify the exam as needed 
• Identify pathology 

• Implications of patient position, physical environment, and patient condition on vascular exams (hydrostatic pressure, etc.) 
• Implications of various laboratory values 
• Incidental findings (thyroid mass, Baker cyst, carotid body tumor, etc.) 
• Inferior vena cava and/or iliac vein disease (thrombosis, extrinsic compression, etc.) 
• Inferior vena cava and/or iliac veins 
• Instrumentation and its appropriate use 
• Interpret and follow patient identification protocols 
• Intracranial cerebrovascular disease (TCD and TCI) (for stroke, for vasospasm, agitated saline for patent foramen ovale (PFO), for intraoperative emboli monitoring, etc.) 
• Intracranial cerebrovascular exams (transcranial Doppler (TCD) and transcranial imaging (TCI)) 
• Lower extremity veins 
• Lower extremity venous disease (thrombosis, extrinsic compression, etc.) 
• Manually calculate pressure indices (ankle-brachial index (ABI), segmental pressures, etc.) 
• Mesenteric vasculature 
• Mesenteric vasculature disease (atherosclerosis, aneurysm, dissection, thrombosis, extrinsic compression, etc.) 
• Modify exam based on patient condition and body habitus 
• Modify exam based on real-time findings 
• Monitor patient condition (including safety and comfort) 
• Native lower extremity artery disease (atherosclerosis, aneurysm, dissection, extrinsic compression, etc.) 
• Native upper extremity artery disease (atherosclerosis, aneurysm, dissection, thoracic outlet syndrome, etc.) 
• Normal vascular flow patterns using spectral, color, and power Doppler 
• Obtain and evaluate patient history 
• Obtain appropriate diagnostic waveforms/pressures with and without provocative/exercise maneuvers 
• Obtain appropriate post-procedural diagnostic images 
• Obtain appropriate venous photoplethysmography (PPG) diagnostic waveforms (with and without tourniquets; plantar flexion and dorsiflexion) 
• Optimize recordings 

• Organs related to vasculature (liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, gallbladder, thyroid, etc.) 
• Other imaging modalities (mri, ct, conventional angiography, etc.) 
• Participate in manual compression of pseudoaneurysms 
• Participate in quality assurance activities and monitor safety 
• Participate in ultrasound-guided procedures/intraoperative assessment 
• Pathology, perfusion, and function 
• Pathology, Perfusion, and Function 32% 
• Pathophysiology of vascular disease 
• Perform physiologic arterial examinations 
• Perform physiologic venous examinations 
• Physiologic examinations 
• Physiologic Examinations 12% 
• Placement of venous ppg sensors and tourniquets 
• Post intervention (endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), inferior vena cava (IVC) filter, venous ablation, bypass grafts, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), stents, etc.) 
• Potential effects of patient medications on exam 
• Preparation, documentation, and communication 
• Preparation, Documentation, and Communication 8% 
• Prepare for examination 
• Procedure protocol and required resources 
• Protocol for critical findings notification 
• Provide appropriate patient care 
• Provide guidance during a procedure 
• Provide guidance for thrombin injections of pseudoaneurysms 
• Provide guidance for venous ablation procedures 
• Provocative/exercise maneuvers and their effect on circulation 

• Quality assurance, safety, and physical principles 
• Quality Assurance, Safety, and Physical Principles 14% 
• Recognize and apply proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting pathology 
• Recognize and document abnormal vascular flow patterns using spectral, color, and power doppler 
• Renal vasculature 
• Renal vasculature disease (atherosclerosis, aneurysm, dissection, thrombosis, extrinsic compression, fibromuscular dysplasia, etc.) 
• Review and confirm patient information (patient identity, clinical history, previous imaging studies, lab findings, interventions, etc.), and communicate exam process to patient 
• Scanning techniques and patient/sonographer positioning 
• Select correct instrumentation based on protocol and patient body habitus 
• Select the appropriate instrumentation (photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors, cuffs, presets, protocols, etc.) 
• Select the appropriate venous photoplethysmography (PPG) instrumentation (sensors, presets, protocols, etc.) 
• Signs and symptoms pertaining to the vascular exam 
• Sonographer's role during procedure 
• Sonographic appearance of abnormal anatomy and vascular structures 
• Sonographic appearance of anatomy, landmarks, and vascular structures 
• Sonographic appearance of surgically altered anatomy/vasculature 
• Surgical procedures related to dialysis access, bypass grafts, stents, organ transplants, venous ablation, etc. 
• Surgically altered anatomy and pathology 
• Surgically Altered Anatomy and Pathology 6% 
• Synthesize information from various sources in the patient's medical history 
• Technical limitations of vascular exams 
• Transplanted organs 
• Ultrasound-guided procedures/intraoperative assessment 
• Ultrasound-guided Procedures/Intraoperative Assessment 7% 
• Understand an operative report and its impact on sonographic appearance and technique 
• Upper extremity veins 
• Upper extremity venous disease (thrombosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, extrinsic compression, etc.) 
• Utilize appropriate exam protocols 
• Utilize resources, such as physicians, literature, or peers 
• Vein mapping 
• Venous insufficiency 
• Verify that exam is properly archived 

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  • General Information

  • Cerebrovascular Evaluation: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Transcranial Evaluation: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Lower and Upper Extremity Arterial Evaluation: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Lower and Upper Extremity Venous Evaluation: 

    • ​Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques​​

  • Abdominal Vascular Evaluation: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Vascular Hemodynamics

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