• Abdominal wall for hernia (for example: ventral, inguinal, incisional)
• Abnormalities (for example: recurrent disease, lymphadenopathy) in postsurgical neck
• Abnormalities in postsurgical anatomy
• Abnormalities in postsurgical breast
• Adapt protocol due to different circumstances
• Adjust machine settings to maximize penetration while minimizing resolution loss
• Adjust scan technique based on patient condition and surgical history
• Adrenal glands for masses, hemorrhage, etc.
• Analyze doppler measurements
• Anatomic and vascular changes associated with vascular abnormities
• Anatomic landmarks in evaluating and documenting perfusion and function
• Anatomic landmarks in obtaining and documenting diagnostic images
• Anatomic structures for pathology
• Anatomic structures for trauma-related abnormalities
• Anatomic structures for vascular abnormalities
• Anatomy of transplanted organs
• Apply measurement techniques (for example: doppler and gray-scale)
• Appropriate application of doppler techniques
• Appropriate indications and contraindications for a specific exam and/or procedure
• Appropriate patient preparation for an exam and factors that may affect patient preparation (for example: patient history, patient condition, sequencing requirements of multiple modality exams)
• Artifacts and correlate them with anatomy and pathology
• Artifacts of doppler imaging (for example: twinkle, spectral broadening) 
• Artifacts of gray-scale imaging (for example: shadowing, resonance, comet tail)
• Aspects related to postoperative anatomy
• Assimilate patient’s signs and symptoms and modify the exam/or describe the findings

• Assist/support during procedures
• Biliary system for infection, masses, metastatic disease, obstructions, etc.
• Breast for infection, abscess, masses, etc.
• Chest for fluid, masses, etc.
• Clinical care, practice, and quality assurance
• Common causes of transplant failure
• Communicate effectively with the patient, physician, and others, including communication of findings that require immediate action
• Communicate using appropriate medical terminology
• Communicate with patient in a professional and appropriate manner to effectively explain procedures, deal with inappropriate behavior, and engage patient cooperation
• Complications related to organ transplants
• Contraindications for specific procedures
• Correlate ultrasound findings with previous imaging results
• Distinguish artifacts from actual blood flow
• Distinguish characteristics of common anastomosis sites
• Equipment and materials used for a specific procedure
• Etiology/pathophysiology of abnormal perfusion and function
• Evaluate and document findings within surgical zones of the neck
• Evaluate transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (tips)
• Findings and/or situations that require immediate action and respond effectively
• Fluid collections
• Focused assessment for free fluid related to traumatic events 2.d. aspects related to postoperative anatomy
• Foreign bodies, infection, fluid, masses, etc.
• Gastrointestinal system for masses, obstruction, pyloric stenosis, intussusception, etc.
• Hemodynamics
• Hemodynamics of transplanted organs

• Hepatic system
• Hernia types and their sonographic appearance
• Implanted medical devices
• Implanted medical devices (for example: transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt [tips]) 
• Incorporate clinical data with performed study
• Incorporate clinical standard/guidelines with performed study
• Indications for examination requested
• Inform patient or referring practitioner of examination preparations (for example: fasting for biliary imaging)
• Interpret and integrate surgical history with sonographic findings
• Interventional procedures and sonographer's role
• Joints for abnormalities (for example: fluid)
• Lab values relevant to specific examinations
• Liver for budd-chiari syndrome, arteriovenous fistula, portal vein thrombosis, collateralization, etc.
• Liver for hepatitis, fatty infiltration, cirrhosis, neoplasm, abscess, cyst, etc.
• Localize pathology for sonographic correlation
• Maintain and protect patient confidentiality/privacy
• Manipulate color, power, and pulsed wave settings to accurately display and measure blood flow 3.b. apply concepts of imaging artifacts
• Manipulate machine settings to enhance or minimize artifacts
• Modalities associated with the exam being performed
• Modify exam preparation, patient position, and/or image acquisition based on patient condition and/or sonographic findings
• Modify the exam based on information from other modalities
• Modify the exam based on real-time findings
• Modify the examination based on patient condition and/or sonographic findings
• Neck (including: thyroid, parathyroid, salivary glands, lymph nodes)
• Neck (including: thyroid, parathyroid, salivary glands, lymph nodes) for diffuse parenchymal disease, inflammation, masses, etc.

• Normal anatomy, anatomic regions, and anatomic variants
• Normal and abnormal doppler waveforms
• Normal measurement ranges
• Normal vascular anatomy and hemodynamics
• Normal vascular flow patterns
• Obtain accurate measurements
• Obtain and evaluate patient history relevant to the exam
• Obtain consent form and patient lab results prior to the procedure
• Obtain measurements of anatomic structures
• Obtain measurements of doppler waveforms 4.d. assist/support during procedures
• Optimally display the needle path and tip
• Pancreas for infection, masses, obstruction, etc.
• Pathology, vascular abnormalities, trauma, and postoperative anatomy
• Patterns and sonographic appearance of disease recurrence
• Penis for abnormalities
• Perform focused assessment for free fluid following a traumatic event
• Perfusion and function of transplanted organs
• Peritoneal cavity (including: stomach, bowel, appendix)
• Peritoneal cavity (including: stomach, bowel, appendix) for fluid
• Popliteal fossa for abnormalities (for example: masses, fluid)
• Potential effects of patient medications on an exam or procedure
• Potential post-procedural complications
• Proper safety precautions in interventional procedures
• Proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting pathology
• Proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting perfusion and function

• Proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting perfusion and function
• Proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting postsurgical findings
• Proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting trauma
• Proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting vascular abnormalities
• Proper scan technique in obtaining and documenting diagnostic images
• Proper techniques for measuring anatomic structures
• Prostate for parenchymal disease or masses (for example: benign prostatic hypertrophy)
• Protocols during surgical procedures, related to the sonographer's role
• Provide ultrasound guidance for procedures
• Rapidly prioritize and evaluate sonographic findings due to trauma
• Recognize, evaluate and document congenital anomalies
• Relevant clinical lab values for examination being performed
• Relevant family history and patient signs/symptoms for examination being performed
• Retroperitoneum (including: great vessels & branches) for fibrosis, lymphadenopathy,for aneurysm, dissection, thrombus, etc.
• Scrotum for fluid, hernia, masses, infection, parenchymal disease, torsion, varicocele, etc.
• Select the appropriate transducer and machine presets based on body habitus
• Signs of rejection
• Sonographer scope of practice and regulations regarding patient information and interactions
• Sonographer's role in obtaining consent
• Sonographic appearance as a result of trauma
• Sonographic appearance of anatomic structures
• Sonographic findings associated with vascular abnormalities
• Spleen for infarction, hemangiomas, splenomegaly, parenchymal changes, masses, etc.
• Superficial structures (for example: abdominal wall, subcutaneous tissue) for foreign bodies, infection, fluid, masses, etc.
• Surgical procedures used in organ transplant
• Surgical zones of the neck
• Ultrasound findings related to abnormalities of anatomy, perfusion, and function in obtaining and documenting diagnostic images
• Urinary system  perfusion and function of anatomic structures
• Urinary system for masses, obstruction, parenchymal disease, infection, 
• Urinary system for renal artery stenosis, arteriovenous fistulas, etc.
• Use acoustic windows creatively to optimize visualization
• Use appropriate transducer (for example: curvilinear, linear, phased array)
• Use doppler (for example: color, power, pulsed wave)
• Use multiple patient positions and scan planes to evaluate anatomic structures 4.c. obtain accurate measurements
• Use two-dimensional, real-time, gray-scale imaging (for example: b-mode, compound, harmonic)
• Utilize resources, such as physicians, literature, or peers
• Verify and document patient consent
• Verify correct patient, side (laterality), and site

Abdomen Sonography Examination Content

 

 

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Ultrasound Registry Review

 

500 Abdomen Ultrasound Practice Questions for the ARDMS Abdomen Exam (Abdominal Sonography Certification exam)

 
 
 
 
 
 

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Course Sections

 

  • General Information and Hemodynamics

  • Abdominal Vasculature Ultrasound:

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Liver Ultrasound: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Gallbladder Ultrasound: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Spleen Ultrasound: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Pancreas Ultrasound: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Urinary System Ultrasound: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Prostate Ultrasound: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Testicular Ultrasound: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Thyroid Ultrasound: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques

  • Ultrasound of Miscellaneous Structures: 

    • Anatomy, Pathology, Physiology and Exam Techniques
       

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